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Essentially, a unit of account is a measurement for value. Such a property of money enables us to compare, for instance, the value of a car with the value of a house. Or to compare the price of apples and oranges – even though they are quite different.
Typically this involves a legal mandate to use a specific good as money or some kind of prohibition on the use of money . Legal tender laws specify a certain good as legal money, which courts will recognize as a final means of payment in contracts and the legal means of settling tax bills. By default, the legal tender will typically be used as a medium of exchange by market participants within the political jurisdiction of the authority that declares it to be money. In economics, unit of account is one of the functions of money. https://markets.financialcontent.com/prnews.pressrelease/news/read/41777438/beaxy_taps_blockdaemon_for_node_infrastructure in financial accounting refers to the words that are used to describe the specific assets and liabilities that are reported in financial statements rather than the units used to measure them.
Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word unit of account. Linguistic and Commodity Exchanges by Elmer G. Wiens. Examines the structural differences between barter and monetary commodity exchanges and oral and written linguistic exchanges. Historic examples of units of measure include the livre tournois, used in France http://tubinvesting.blogspot.com/p/blog-page_16.html?rkey=20210907PH94028&filter=13330 from 1302 to 1794 whether or not livre coins were minted. In the 14th century Naples used the grossi gigliati, and Bohemia used the Prague groschen. Money is generally never perfectly stable in real value which is the fundamental problem with traditional historical cost accounting which is based on the stable measuring unit assumption.
And they were also used sometimes as a store of value (people did store cocoa beans probably for “selling” it later). But it was not as widespread or universal as the dollar. It fulfills more money roles than Iliad’s oxen, so it can be considered more closely related to the concept of money. An asset on your balance sheet can have an offsetting liability on another balance sheet. (This is the definition of a “financial asset.” It’s a claim against assets on another balance sheet. That’s why the matching liability is over there.) The balance sheet is the “perspective” you mention. But that doesn’t mean that the asset on your balance sheet “is” the liability on another balance sheet. Then people swap them for other assets, or transfer them to pay for newly produced goods and services.
The thing is that the Treasury issues bonds out of thin air. That could be called “money printing” depending on your definition . But sometimes people don’t consider that bonds are money, so those people would not claim that the Treasury issues money. If face value equals substrate value, then you cannot claim that the money is fiat. In that case, people are exchanging the coins for their metal content, not because some authority decree. It happened sometimes in history – usually between foreign traders. But I find it troubling when one makes the general claim that money was always fiat. BUT…when you say that “saving doesn’t create more collective money. So it can’t fund investment” well, that just runs counter to the way my business works. Last I checked, banks weren’t creating loans with 0 down.
There are two types of money: commodity money, which is an item used as money, but which also has value from its use as something other than money; and fiat money, which has no intrinsic value, but is declared by a government to be the legal tender of a country.
Imagine that Laura writes a check for $1,000 and brings it to the bank to start a money market account. This would cause M1 to decrease by $1,000, but M2 to stay the same. This is because M2 includes the money market account in addition to all the money counted in M1. Near monies a unit of account are relatively-liquid financial assets that can be quickly converted into M1 money. Many items have been historically used as commodity money, including naturally scarce precious metals, conch shells, barley beads, and other things that were considered to have value.
Also, this property is what grants money the ability to be lent and borrowed, and also what enables us to perform mathematical operations – for instance, when calculating profits, losses, and income. In other terms, a unit of account is what gives meaning and numerical values to the things we produce, trade, and consume. In economics, unit of account is one of the money functions. You see how the word “money” is ambiguous and makes discussions difficult.
No. Money can be saved. If it is, then it’s not being used to buy things. Spending puts pressure on supply, not money or perceptions. ‘Devalue’ means ‘inflation’. Devaluation from expanded money supply is related to fixed exchange regimes (currency/commodity pegs).
— Ellis Winningham (@elliswinningham) September 4, 2021
Fiat money, if physically represented in the form of currency , can be accidentally damaged or destroyed. However, fiat money has an advantage over representative or commodity money in that the same laws that created the money can also define rules for its replacement in case of damage or destruction. For example, the U.S. government will replace mutilated Federal Reserve notes (U.S. fiat money) if at least half of the physical note can be reconstructed, or if it can be otherwise proven to have been destroyed. By contrast, commodity money which has been lost or destroyed cannot be recovered. However certain goods in a barter economy will be generally desired by more people in trade for whatever they have to offer in barter. These tend to be goods that have the best combination of the five properties of money listed above. Eventually, people can come to desire a good mostly or solely for its use-value in reducing transaction costs in future exchanges. In this sense, currencies are actually less than ideally suited because they can be quite volatile, depending on the market. This is why some currencies tend to be used more than others as units of account. The United States Dollar and European Euro, for example, are widely regarded as reasonably stable.
The extension of credit is also enabled via the function of money as a unit of account. This makes it possible for borrowers and lenders to keep track of amounts they have borrowed or lent. The relevant interest rates can also be calculated in this relation. Moreover, the net worth of individuals, entities, as well as economies as mentioned above, can be determined in monetary terms as per this function.